In his two volume work The Open Society and Its Enemies, Popper used the term “conspiracy theory” to criticize the ideologies driving fascism, nazism, and communism. Popper argued that totalitarianism was founded on “conspiracy theories” which drew on imaginary plots driven by paranoid scenarios predicated on tribalism, chauvinism, or racism. Popper did not argue against the existence of everyday conspiracies (as incorrectly suggested in much of the later literature). Popper even uses the term “conspiracy” to describe ordinary political activity in the classical Athens of Plato (who was the principal target of his attack in The Open Society and Its Enemies).
In his critique of the twentieth century totalitarians, Popper wrote, “I do not wish to imply that conspiracies never happen. On the contrary, they are typical social phenomena.” He reiterated his point, “Conspiracies occur, it must be admitted. But the striking fact which, in spite of their occurrence, disproved the conspiracy theory is that few of these conspiracies are ultimately successful. Conspirators rarely consummate their conspiracy.”
In a paper written in 2008, Cass Sunstein, legal scholar, and Administrator of the White House Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, wrote of appropriate government responses to conspiracy theories. In the paper he stated:
What can government do about conspiracy theories? Among the things it can do, what should it do? We can readily imagine a series of possible responses. (1) Government might ban conspiracy theorizing. (2) Government might impose some kind of tax, financial or otherwise, on those who disseminate such theories. (3) Government might itself engage in counterspeech, marshaling arguments to discredit conspiracy theories. (4) Government might formally hire credible private parties to engage in counterspeech. (5) Government might engage in informal communication with such parties, encouraging them to help. Each instrument has a distinctive set of potential effects, or costs and benefits, and each will have a place under imaginable conditions. However, our main policy idea is that government should engage in cognitive infiltration of the groups that produce conspiracy theories, which involves a mix of (3), (4) and (5).
There is a conspiracy theory, that Mankind wants to play God to predict the future events according to bible prophesies, so they come out with all kinds of permutations, create all kinds of events so as to farm out misinformation, and sit back to watch the “movie” for their own gains, what do you call this kind of actions, where even those in the highest position participate, in the name of “terrorism” create fear and chaos, the conspirators need a taste of their own medicine, for causing mayhem.
– Contributed by Oogle.
Serge Monast (1945 – December 5, 1996)
In 1994, he published Project Blue Beam (NASA), in which he detailed his claim that NASA, with the help of the United Nations, was attempting to implement a New Age religion with the Antichrist at its head and start a New World Order, via a technologically simulated Second Coming of Christ. He also gave talks on this topic. Other conspiracy theorists have noted the similarity of Project Blue Beam to the plots of Gene Roddenberry‘s unreleased 1975 Star Trek movie treatment The God Thing and the 1991 Star Trek: The Next Generation episode Devil’s Due.
In 1995, he published his most detailed work, Les Protocoles de Toronto (6.6.6), modeled upon The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, wherein he said a Masonic group called “6.6.6” had, for twenty years, been gathering the world’s powerful to establish the New World Order and control the minds of individuals.